Policy Safety & Education

How to truly reduce distracted driving

Proposed state legislation (HB 4277, HB 4278, and HB 4279) would make it largely illegal to use a handheld phone while driving. Proponents of this legislation say this is, “a great step forward to stop distracted driving.”

It’s not.

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHSTA):

The effectiveness of laws banning cell phone use has been
examined in several research studies. The results across types of phone use are inconsistent. Specifically, research examining prohibitions on hands-free phone use and texting have yielded mixed results in terms of reductions in phone use while driving and reduced crashes. There is some evidence that banning handheld cell phone use leads to long-term reductions in this behavior; however, many State and Local laws were only recently passed and effectiveness is still being examined. At this time, there is insufficient consensus across research findings to determine that this countermeasure is effective.

Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 10th Edition, 2020

NHTSA adds that “there is less disagreement about the dangers posed by texting while driving”, which Michigan law currently prohibits.

Also, the National Transportation Safety Board states, “Hands-free is not risk free. Using a device hands-free does not reduce driver distraction.”

Racial Disparities in Enforcement

Like other organizations involved in transportation equity, we don’t support increasing law enforcement’s role in traffic safety. The proposed cell phone law makes handheld cell phone use a primary offense. In other words, motorists can get pulled over solely for this violation.

When Massachusetts implemented a similar law similar, they found that non-white drivers were more likely to be ticketed and fined.  Dr. Carsten Andresen, a professor of criminal justice at St. Edward’s University in Austin, found that white people were more likley to just get a warning. We would expect a similar outcome under the proposed Michigan law.

A True Step Forward

All distracted driving can be addressed through effective driver monitoring, systems which a growing number of new vehicles currently have.

In fact, Consumer Reports now awards safety points for vehicle models with these systems.

We’re not saying how many seconds you have to look at the road, and if you’re allowed to look at the mirrors. We are just calling for the bare bones. You’ve got to make sure that the driver is awake and generally looking forward, toward the roadway.

Kelly Funkhouser, Vehicle Technology Manager at Consumer Reports (Source)

Distracted driving is a growing issue due to vehicle technology. This includes “bloated, distracting, and unregulated” infotainment systems as well as driver assistance features. “Today’s infotainment systems can be as distracting—if not more so—than personal electronic devices,” says NTSB chair Jennifer Homendy.

NHTSA could regulate infotainment system design whereas they currently only offer design guidance. One study found this guidance is largely ignored.

How do the companies behind all those distracting screens and apps — the automakers and smartphone manufacturers — view their responsibility for the problem and their role in solving it?

When companies do talk about distracted driving, they tend to frame it as a problem with cellphones. Their solution: Integrate the same functionality and more into dashboard interfaces and voice-recognition systems.

‘We are killing people’: How technology has made your car ‘a candy store of distraction’, LA Times, July 2022

2023 Cadillac LYRIQ offers an integrated 33″ diagonal LED display

Besides distracting vehicle interiors, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are also a concern.

A report from the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety says, “as drivers develop more experience and comfort using advanced driver assistance systems, they are also more likely to drive distracted while using the systems.” How much more? Nearly twice as often.

So, how do we get more vehicles with driver monitoring systems? One way is for NHTSA to rate vehicle safety based on these monitoring systems through their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). NCAP is currently updating their rating process, and like many others, we submitted comments supporting this change.

The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law also instructs NHTSA to “perform research and report to Congress on the potential for technology interventions to reduce driver distraction, driver disengagement, automation complacency, and foreseeable misuse of ADAS by drivers,” according to the Center for Automotive Research.

Effective driver monitoring systems and increased NHTSA oversight would be great steps forward. Both are more effective, require less law enforcement, and better align with the Safe Systems Approach.

Just adding more laws and more education won’t make our roads safer for bicycling and walking.

Additional Reading

Complete Streets Policy Safety & Education

Every Month is Pedestrian Safety Month

October is Pedestrian Safety Month where safety groups roll out tepid safety messaging and do a modest amount of short-term traffic enforcement in a handful of Michigan cities. This approach certainly hasn’t led to reduced pedestrian fatalities and serious injuries, which have actually increased over the past decade

What is much more effective than education or enforcement? It’s engineering — building Complete Streets that can self-regulate motorists and reduce speeding 24 hours a day. This is critical since vehicle speed largely determines the degree of injury suffered by pedestrians and bicyclists in crashes. (Vehicle design is a significant determinant as well.)

If there is any doubt that Detroit has speeding problem, just consider Detroiters’ overwhelming demand for speed humps to slow motorists on residential streets. This demand has led Mayor Mike Duggan to shift $11.5 million in road funding to install significantly more speed humps in 2021 — perhaps more than any other major U.S. city.

I’m not sure there’s been any innovation in this city that has been received with more enthusiasm than the speed humps

Mayor Mike Duggan Press Conference, September 16, 2020
YearSpeed humps installedResident requests
20214,500 (planned)

Of course speed humps only work on streets were speed limits are 25 MPH or less. Other streets require different Complete Street designs to reduce speeding, e.g. bike lanes, bumps outs, narrower travel lanes, street trees.

Reframing bike lanes as speed humps for bigger roads is invaluable. Bike lanes help reduce speeding and increase safety for everyone, not just bicyclists.

Speed Limits

Another issue we’re working on is how speed limits are set in Michigan.

One major reason the auto industry wrote the “Rules of the Road” in the 1920s was to have higher speed limits and restrict other users, predominantly pedestrians, from using these roads. Higher travel speeds gave motorist a clear advantage over other travel modes and helped sell more cars.

Michigan’s speed limit laws still reflect this history with minimums limits for speed limits and by having the 85th fastest motorist under ideal conditions determine the speed limit — not traffic experts or local governments. This leads to higher speed limits that don’t consider road design, crash history, local land use, and pedestrian and bicyclist use. What’s equally bad is that when roads are reconstructed, they are designed to accomodate the speed limit rather than what is appropriate and safe for the local community.

One local example of this is W. Fort Street near Schaefer. It used to have a 35 MPH speed limit. The Michigan State Police measured the 85th fastest motorist at a bit over 40 MPH, so they raised the speed limit to 45 MPH. They didn’t consider that the neighborhood to the south crossed the road to get to Kemeney Rec Center and park on the north. After the speed limit changed, 8-year-old Brandyn Starks was hit and killed while crossing the street to get to the park.

We’re part of a stakeholder group that’s helping shape current legislation (HB 4733) to provide a modest amount of flexibility in setting speed limits. This change is very much inline with recommendation from the NTSB and many other national organizations. We look forward to providing future updates on this bill.

What about 20 MPH speed limits?

There is a push in many cities around the world to reduce residential speed limits from 25 MPH to 20 MPH. This change is being promoted to help reduce pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities and serious injuries. Recent studies show that lower speed limits do reduce motorist speeds.

However, Michigan law prohibits setting Detroit’s residential speed limits below 25 MPH through January 2024. The Michigan State Police will be doing motorist speed studies on these local roads across the state. We anticipate they will more likely want to raise this 25 MPH minimum rather than lower it by 2024.

Of course, if the legislature takes no action before that time, residential speed limits could be set based on the 85th fastest motorist…